Practical Singing Tutor - Part 3: Nos. 1-14

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In relation to the segments that the teacher teaches, kindergarten teachers presented higher vocal dose than those of elementary school ones, which suggests that there are more oscillatory cycles and longer distance travelled by the vocal folds in teachers that work with younger children This difference can be related to the need of a more constant speech to keep students attention.

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It is worth pointing out that kindergarten teachers use more didactic strategies of storytelling which require speech with higher prosodic variation for the interpreting of characters and theme songs. Literature shows that vocal strategies with higher prosodic variation 7 and singing 14 propitiate an increase in vocal dose. The large variation in frequency and intensity of speech results in an increase of vocal dose.

  • Vocal dose: an integrative literature review;
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Participants were asked to read a text in three melodic variations: monotonous, normal and exaggerated as if they were reading to capture the attention of small children and the D c, D d , D r and D e had higher values in the presence of larger prosodic variation 7.

Such result suggests that different prosodic variations modify the vocal dose, with higher values for emissions with larger melodic contour and intensity. Another factor that showed association with the increase of vocal dose was the presence of background noise 11 , and the increase of voice intensity This is called Lombard Effect, defined as an involuntary vocal response of the speaker to the presence of background noise.

As the background noise increases the intensity of the voice also increases A study that evaluated the association between levels of background noise in kindergarten schools and vocal alterations in teachers observed that dysphonia was more prevalent in teaching institutions with more intense noise The increase of the vocal dose is also related to a self-perception of voice tiredness as pointed out in the study with singers, in which the symptom of vocal fatigue appeared after vocal use in higher doses, being that there was an improvement of these symptoms when these higher doses were preceded by 48 hours of vocal rest 2.

Vocal fatigue generally refers to voice tiredness following its prolonged use, which demands a higher effort to continue speaking. It can come together with changes in vocal quality, in the pitch, the loudness and laryngeal discomfort. In general, it occurs right after the abnormal use of vocal frequency, intensity and quality or after continuous speech for more than an hour Literature points out that, at the end of the working day, teachers refer to higher vocal tiredness The use of vocal amplification was one of the factors that indicated a decrease in vocal dose 9 , A case study, which evaluated music teachers, observed a decrease of the D c 1.

Another case study with elementary school teachers found out that the use of vocal amplification decreased the D d from meters to meters, with more positive effects on the teacher with dysphonia 9. Such results support the findings in literature that point out that the use of vocal amplification protects teachers from vocal effort during the long hours of teaching, promoting a better use of the voice in the professional environment 33 , 34 and produces significant improvement of the perception of the teachers about the impact of their vocal limitations Besides, it improves the teachers vocal quality and diminishes the level of damage in the vocal fold tissue caused by the force of collision due to decreasing of the vibration dose 33 , Another factor associated with the decreasing of the dose of the voice is the vocal rest.

The vocal rest, along with hydration, are pointed out in literature as preventive measures of vocal fatigue 31 , for they generate a lower subglottic air pressure minimum pressure of expired air flux necessary to initiate the oscillation of the vocal fold that can be perceived by the speaker as low respiratory and phonatory effort Teachers frequently speak in a strong intensity for long periods of time in noisy atmospheres and stressful situations 18 , 20 , 24 , which makes them the professionals with the highest chance of developing vocal problems.

However, there is a necessity to analyze the vocal dose of other professionals that use their voice as a working tool such as actors, telemarketing attendants, priests and pastors etc. Studies with larger samples and consequently higher external validity are also important for the advance in the understanding of the results of the vocal dose in different communication situations.

The measurements of vocal dose allow us to quantify the exposure of the vocal fold tissue to vibration 1 , and several measurements are currently available in literature 1 , 7. Future research that analyzes the differences in the sensibilities and specificities of these measurements of vocal dose are important for a better definition of the value and the clinical application of these voice evaluations.

The types of doses found in literature were percentage of phonation, time dose, cycle dose, distance dose, radiated energy dose and dissipated energy dose. The increase in the vocal dose is associated with the use of the voice in the teaching activity, especially amongst teachers that work with kindergarten and singing teachers.

The high vocal doses correlate also to the presence of dysphonia, to a higher level of background noise, to a great prosodic variation in speech and to the self-perception of vocal fatigue. Patients with behavioral dysphonia nodes and polyps present higher vocal doses than patients with other dysphonic conditions. Factors such as voice rest and the use of vocal amplifiers indicate a diminishing of the dose of the voice. Measurement of vocal doses in speech: experimental procedure and signal processing. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol.

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Objective measurement of vocal fatigue in classical singers: a vocal dosimetry pilot study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Development and testing of a portable vocal accumulator. J Speech Lang Hear Res. Rantala L, Vilkman E. Relationship between subjective voice complaints and acoustic parameters in female teachers' voices. J Voice. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. A newly devised speech accumulator. J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. Vocal dose measures: quantifying accumulated vibration exposure in vocal fold tissues.

The effect of voice amplification on occupational vocal dose in elementary school teachers. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and vocal dose of a vocal loading test in comparison to a real teaching situation. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. Comparison of vocal loading parameters in kindergarten and elementary school teachers.

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Schloneger MJ. See much and get rid of what is dangerous and be careful in acting on the rest and your causes for regret will be few. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, and the people will not follow you. Be filial and compassionate and they will be loyal. Promote the able and teach the incompetent, and they will work positively for you.

When a pin is missing from the yoke-bar of a large wagon, or from the collar-bar of a small wagon, how can it go? The Zhou has based its propriety on that of the Shang and what it added and subtracted is knowable.


In this way, what continues from the Zhou, even if generations hence, is knowable. If you see what is right and fail to act on it, you lack courage. If he does this, what will he not do? The head of the Qi family is often criticized in the Analects for similar improprieties.

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Confucius said,. Attended on by Lords and Princes:.

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How magnificent is the Son of Heaven! How could these words be used in the halls of the Three Families? If a man has no ren what can his music be like? In ritual, it is better to be frugal than extravagant; in funerals deep sorrow is better than ease. Does this meant that Mt. Tai is not the equal of Lin Fang? But if he must compete, he does it in an archery match, wherein he ascends to his position, bowing in deference.

Descending, he drinks the ritual cup. This is the competition of the noble man. Her tactful smile charms;. Her eyes, fine and clear,. Beautiful without accessories. And asked its meaning. Now we can really begin to discuss the Book of Odes. If you offend Heaven, there is no one you can pray to.

Health promotion for musicians: Engaging with instrumental and vocal teachers

I now follow the Zhou. He enters the Grand Temple and asks about everything! This is the Way of the ancients. How can he be considered to have been frugal? When the princes of state had a friendly meeting, they would ritually turn their cups over on the table. Guan also turned his cups over on the table. If Guan Zhong understood propriety, then who doesn't? Afterwards, if it is pure, clear and without break, it will be perfect. The world has certainly lacked the Way for a long time now, but Heaven will use your master to awaken everyone. If you choose to live in a place that lacks ren , how can you grow in wisdom?

Humane men are comfortable in ren.

The wise take advantage of ren. Here it would seem that although he has that capability, if he makes an effort to exercise his innate goodness, he will not hold that malice. But if they cannot be attained in accordance with the Way they should not be kept.